Skill development is a critical part of preparing for work in the future – even for jobs that do not yet exist. It goes without saying that a child who cannot read, write or perform at least simple mathematics with proficiency will be poorly equipped as an adult to excel in the technology-driven industries of the future.
Next week, two very different – but powerful – groups will be grappling with the ways in which the global learning crisis is in fact a skills crisis threatening the prospects of current generations and those to come. In Geneva at the Global Shapers Annual Summit, about 400 “change-makers” under the age of 30 will be exchanging ways to address the needs of their communities while striving to have a global impact. Just days later, education ministers from G20 countries will meet in Argentina, where the question on everyone’s mind will be: how do we prepare our children and youth for the future?
The jobs of the future will require that students have strong cognitive skills in mathematics and literacy, as well as soft skills like problem solving and creative thinking, to enable them to adapt to a quickly changing environment. However, millions of children are not gaining these skillsets either because they never started school, they have dropped out or their schools do not offer a quality education. According to data from the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), we are in the midst of a global learning crisis:
617 million children and adolescents are not proficient in either reading or mathematics. Data show that two-thirds of children not learning are actually in school, or were in school, but dropped out.
Not only is the learning crisis alarming from a national economic perspective, it also threatens the ability of individuals to climb out of poverty through better income-earning opportunities. Each additional year of schooling can improve an individual’s job prospects and raise income by 10-20% – if they gain the required skillsets. Educated individuals are also more likely to make better decisions – like vaccinating their children – and educated mothers are more likely to send their own children to school. The learning crisis is, simply, a massive waste of talent and human potential.
The learning crisis is global but concentrated in low-income regions
The learning crisis impacts children and adolescents on every continent. In a new paper, the UIS estimates that of the 617 million children and adolescents not learning, almost half live in the G20.
Proportion of children and adolescents in school not achieving minimum proficiency levels in reading and out-of-school children and adolescents as a percentage of total children and adolescents not learning, 2015
Breaking it down by region, the data show that Central and Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are bearing the brunt of the learning crisis. About 80% of adolescents in school (roughly between the ages of 12 and 14) are unable to read at minimum proficiency levels.
As these young teens prepare for life and the job market, they are at a marked disadvantage over their peers who are able to gain these skills in school. Their countries also suffer a huge loss of talent of young people who will be ill-equipped to deal with the challenges posed by technological changes in areas such as robotics and artificial intelligence.
But the learning crisis does not only affect the poor. Wealthier regions like North America and Europe are similarly impacted and a sizeable proportion (almost 20%) of adolescents in school lack the basic skillsets to get ahead.
Youth without a primary education are more likely to be unemployed
So where does this leave us? Consider the proportion of youth aged 15-24 not in education, employment or training – or the NEET ratio. As one might expect, there are more NEETs who have less than a primary education than youth who have stayed in school or are working.
However, data also show that in almost one-third of G20 countries, 10-15% of youth not in school or working have completed university-level education or its equivalent. It may be that the job markets are also unable to absorb university graduates although more research is required.
In all, the learning crisis puts a serious dent in the abilities of countries and job-seekers to seize the benefits of technological change. As the G20 education ministers meet next week, UIS data highlight three take-away messages underlying the learning crisis:
- Lack of access to school means that there are children who will never have the chance to gain the foundational skills stemming from literacy and numeracy.
- Schools are failing to retain children who enroll, leading to high dropout rates and insufficient learning.
- Poor quality of education and classroom practices are leaving millions of children and adolescents without the skills to compete in the global economy.
The role of education in skill development is particularly relevant today, and governments around the world have already been taking a hard look at it as part of their commitments to the sustainable development goals. The goal for education (SDG 4) includes a range of education targets such as equal access to vocational training and university as well as free universal education at the primary and secondary levels.
To meet these goals and to ensure that all children are learning, we need a meaningful investment in the millions of children and adolescents around the world who deserve an opportunity to develop their own talents so they can help themselves and contribute to the well-being of their families and communities.